Public Water System Emergency Planning
Tools and assistance for water system emergency planning, response and recovery.
In order to maintain a water system that is protected and secure, it is important to assess potential risks and take action to improve emergency response. To help public water suppliers maintain a high level of protection and security, the NHDES Drinking Water and Groundwater Bureau (DWGB) provides the necessary training and tools to identify vulnerabilities and improve emergency response and security. This information will help water systems plan for, respond to and recover from emergencies.
Emergencies may include suspected or actual tampering or sabotage of the system, damage or depletion of the source affecting water quantity and/or quality, or the interruption of service due to a line break or other cause.
If you experience an emergency or security breach, you are required to notify DWGB within 24 hours (Env-Dw 503.02).
If your system experiences an emergency and you need to activate an alternate source of drinking water ASAP, see the Emergency Water Supply Wells for Public Water Systems fact sheet for an explanation of the steps that need to be taken.
Acute contaminants in your water system
Was E. coli or nitrate detected in your water system? NHDES provides information on acute contaminants for water systems, and the EPA provides an Incident Action Checklist.
Boil orders when water quality is compromised
Sometimes water quality becomes compromised due to the presence of E. coli or loss of water pressure. If this happens, it will be necessary to issue a boil order, or a directive to have water customers boil their water before consuming to make sure it’s safe to drink. The boil order is kept in place until multiple drinking water samples show the absence of bacteria, and NHDES staff confirm that the water is safe for consumption.
Public notices required to inform water users
A public notice is distributed to notify water users of important information. Reasons for distributing a public notice include if a contaminant has been found above a standard or if a scheduled sample was not collected. Learn more about when it’s necessary to issue a public notice and the proper public notice forms to use.
Developing an Emergency Plan
All community water systems are required to submit an updated emergency plan to DWGB every six years per Env-Dw 503.21. The emergency plan will be a checklist item during sanitary surveys and a lack of one will result in a survey deficiency. A copy of your community water system's updated emergency plan is due by March 31, 2021.
Developing a plan that will effectively meet the needs of a system in the event of an emergency is directly related to the quality of work that goes into it. The better the input, the better and more effective the plan. NHDES strongly recommends that the plan be developed by the people who are most knowledgeable about a system's users, equipment, infrastructure and resources. It is ultimately up to the owner to make sure a plan is completed. The plan must be reviewed and signed by both the owner and operator.
NHDES recognizes that every system will be different in terms of the resources they allocate for their plan. Small systems may only need to invest a minimal amount of time, whereas large systems may want to develop, implement or maintain their plans at a more advanced level.
Be sure to use an all-hazards approach by accounting for events that can affect your system's daily service and operations, such as natural disasters, malevolent acts and national pandemics and illnesses like the flu. Consider including EPA's Incident Action Checklists as an appendix in your emergency plan.
Emergency Planning Templates
Developing a Risk Assessment
In 2018 America’s Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) was signed into law. Section 2013 requires community water systems serving more than 3,300 people to develop or update risk assessments, update emergency plans based on the findings of the risk assessment, and certify to EPA that this work has been completed. You are not required to actually submit your risk assessment to NHDES. The risk assessment contains sensitive information that should be stored in a secure location. See the EPA website for details on conducting a risk assessment and how to certify. Please note that certification deadlines vary based on population size.
Although a risk assessment is required only of community water systems serving more than 3,300 people, it is recommended that all systems complete one regardless of size. It’s important to identify potential risks to your water system to determine how a system will handle malevolent acts and natural hazards.
Risk Assessment Tools & Resources
AWIA Requirements & Deadlines Based on Population Sizes
Your utility must develop or update an emergency response plan and certify completion to the EPA no later than six months after the risk assessment certification. View deadline certifications.
- Serving 100,000 or more people
- Serving 50,000 to 99,999 people
Community water systems serving between 50,000 and 99,999 people must conduct a risk assessment and submit certification of its completion to the EPA no later than December 31, 2020. Each utility deadline is different, however, for a utility in this category that submitted risk assessment certification by the final due date, certification of an updated emergency plan will be due June 30, 2021.
- Serving 3,301 to 49,999 people
Community water systems serving between 3,301 and 49,999 people must conduct a risk assessment and submit certification of its completion to the EPA no later than June 30, 2021. Each utility deadline is different, however, for a utility in this category that submitted risk assessment certification by the final due date, certification of an updated emergency plan will be due December 30, 2021.
Water System Security
Water systems can experience local incidents that compromise the safety and security of the system. Some examples include threats to your cybersecurity system, malevolent acts such as vandalism, or natural disasters like extreme weather that can cause flooding and power outages. While these incidents may not be terrorist attacks, they are still a threat to the water source and quality that is distributed to customers, so it’s essential to maintain a water system that is protected and secure.
Compromised safety and security is a threat that remains on ALL systems and organizations. Please remember to be vigilant and ensure that your system incorporates safety and security as a regular part of operations. Consider a “No Trespassing Sign” to help protect your water system.
Below are resources to help maintain a safe and security water utility while reducing risks and mitigating potential impacts.
- EPA Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts
- EPA Cybersecurity Brief
- AWWA Cyber Guidance
- National Incident Management System
Partnerships During Emergencies
Water and Wastewater Agency Networks (WARNs) are systems that create a formalized network of utilities helping other utilities during emergencies or disasters and are governed by a mutual aid agreement. There are 50 in the United States and two in Canada. Learn more with our FAQs on Water and Wastewater Mutual Aid and Assistance.
New Hampshire has its own mutual aid network called the NH Public Works Mutual Aid Program (NHPWMA), which is coordinated by the UNH Technology Transfer Center. Water systems are encouraged to participate in the mutual aid program to provide partnerships and networking during emergencies. Enroll in a Mutual Aid Agreement.